Two or three years before his death, Wang Yangming èÝåÕÙ¥ (1472-1529) started to emphasize the ¡°unity of all things¡± (wanwu yiti Ø¿Úªìéô÷). In scholarly discussions of Wang¡¯s notion of ¡°ren which unifies all things in the universe¡± (tiandi wanwu yiti zhi ren ô¸ò¢Ø¿Úªìéô÷ñýìÒ), the character ren ìÒ (benevolence/humaneness) is often overlooked. In fact, unifying ren (yiti zhi ren ìéô÷ñýìÒ) is the central notion that Wang deploys to formulate his doctrine of the unity of all things. This notion is different from other traditional Chinese ideas about ren and unity, including Cheng Hao¡¯s ïïûâ (1032-1085) teaching that emphasizes ¡°knowing ren¡± (shiren ãÛìÒ) in the beginning and then progresses to ¡°completely being as one with all things¡± (hunran yuwu tongti ûéæÔæ¨ÚªÔÒô÷). In a word, Wang¡¯s doctrine of the unity of all things is both ontological and practical and reveals the humanistic spirit of World-ism (tianxia zhuyi ô¸ù»ñ«ëù). On the basis of a belief in unifying ren, a harmonious world where ¡°all things in the universe are originally as one with me¡± (tiandi wanwu ben wu yiti zhe ô¸ò¢Ø¿ÚªÜâçîìéô÷íº) can be created.