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[Vol.26 (2016)] Kongzi Approach to social and Reclusive Lifestyles
Author : LEE Hsing-ling
Date : 19.03.27
Page : 137-158
Keyword : Kongzi (i.e. Confucius), ren (benevolence), zhong (loyalty), shu (tolerance / forgiveness), social responsibility, moral self-cultivation
Abstract :

Confucianism holds that human nature is given by Heaven and inherent human nature functions as a kind of moral guide in the course of moral self-cultivation, particularly in its enjoining of mercy for all human beings and himself. Confucian thought holds both that our human nature contains the noble virtues and that people are obligated to assume certain unavoidable moral duties which are essentially social in their nature. Kongzi (i.e. Confucius, 551-479 BCE) was opposed to the reclusive attitude of hermits. Though we may not want to live in tough times, we are nevertheless not supposed to avoid our moral duties. Kongzi maintained the following position, Living in reclusion to seek their aims, and practicing righteousness to carry out their principles (ϴ, ӹԳ). In this regard, Kongzi pursued a unity between living in reclusion and entering government service in the sense that the two ways of life can be seen as seeking the same goal. In reclusion, we are supposed to cultivate our morality and enrich knowledge, waiting for appropriate opportunities to fulfill the goals true to our nature, which is called zhong (loyalty). In public office, we become able to grasp the opportunities provided to actualize benevolent policies and help people accomplish their goals, which is called shu (tolerance / forgiveness). This position in the Lunyu (i.e. Analects) can be understood as a manifestation of the Confucian general principle of ren (benevolence). In sum, Kongzi put a great emphasis on the balance between ones private moral self-cultivation and ones broader social responsibilities.

Attachments : κ(ּ) 137-158.pdf

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