One intellectual trend which characterized thought during the late Ming dynasty Ù¥ (1368-1644) was the practice of interpreting Confucian classics through heart-mind theory. This trend reflects a departure from the dominating influence of Zhu Xi¡¯s ñ¹ýø (1130-1200) interpretation of the classics which held such sway during the early and middle Ming dynasty. One representative of this late Ming dynasty thought is Jiao Hong¡¯s interpretation of the Lunyu ÖååÞ. As part of Jiao Hong¡¯s Miscellaneous Notes (Jiaoshi bicheng õ¥ä«ù¶ã«), the eighty notes in ¡°On Reading the Lunyu (Du Lunyu ÔÁÖååÞ)¡± consist of philosophical thinking about the heart-mind theory and the integration of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism conducted through a textual analysis of the Lunyu. Jiao Hong õ¥竑 (1540-1620) describes the original state of heaven¡¯s will and heart-mind by borrowing the words ¡°kongkong ÍöÍö (empty)¡± from the Analects of Confucius. He also points out that Zigong, a disciple of Confucius, deviates from the nature of heart-mind by ¡°yi åæ (guessing)¡±. Jiao argues that cultivation of the heart-mind begins with recognizing it and then returning it to the state of emptiness. Jiao Hong proposes an amalgamation of the three religions, taking Confucianism as the essential and drawing on Buddhism and Taoism to support it. This paper focuses on the thinking method of ¡°non-duality¡± adopted by Jiao and the practice of ¡°samatha¡± that Jiao advocates, discussing their relation with Buddhism and Taoism. Because it fosters an environment which encourages free thinking and a multi-cultural view, Jiao Hong¡¯s integrated and innovative interpretation of the Lunyu should be seen as injecting important new vitality into the rigid field of studies dedicated to the Confucian classics.