The Song dynasty áä (960-1279) had numerous talented scholars and Fan Zhongyan Ûõñêåô (989-1052) was one of the most gifted. Academically, Fan was a forerunner of Song studies. Politically, he was a pioneer in his advocacy of political innovation. Mentally, he was the first scholar who regained the importance of the spirit of undertaking responsibilities. The formation of this spirit was influenced by many factors, including his early experience, the spirit of Suiyang Academy (Suiyang shuyuan 睢åÕßöêÂ), Confucian spirit, ancient sages, some famous ministers like Tian Xi ï£à¸ (940-1004) and Wang Yucheng èÝéà偁 (954-1001) in the early Song Dynasty, and the changes of the time. Fan combined the spirit of undertaking responsibilities with personal praxis, presiding over political reform, repairing the seawall, leading Lake Tai ÷¼ûÉ into the sea, founding a county school, and recommending Hu Yuan û×ê¼ (993-1059) and other famous scholars to become teachers of the Imperial College. His thought also greatly imfluenced many subsequent scholars in the Song dynasty and after, including Fu Bi Ý£ù° (1004-1083), Liu Mu ×±ÙÌ (1011-1064), Hu Yuan û×ê¼ (993-1059), Zhang Zai íåî° (1020-1077) and Wang Anshi èÝäÌà´ (1021-1086).