|Keyword : Zhu Xi, learning (xue ùÊ), gewu Ì«Úª, zhizhi öÈò±, broad learning (boxue ÚÏùÊ), Chan Buddhism-oriented learning, the integral unity, huoran guantong üÃæÔÎ»÷×
This paper aims to shed fresh light on Zhu Xi¡¯s ñ¹ýø (1130-1200) reformulation of gewu and zhizhi, which he proclaimed was the first and indispensable stage of the sequence of genuine learning, thus revealing the unique characteristics of his scheme of learning. As is well known, he fell back on the authority of the Cheng brothers in interpreting these two key concepts. It remains understudied, however, to what degree, and in what way, Zhu inherited the teaching of the Cheng brothers in interpreting gewu and zhizhi. In so doing, he directly challenged the authority of the direct disciples of the Cheng brothers. He also selected passages from Henan Chengshi yishu in support of his views and modified the Chenge brothers¡¯ ideas to make them better fit to his scheme rather than merely comprehensively representing the Cheng brothers¡¯ thinking about these concepts. In order to fully illuminate Zhu Xi¡¯s reformulations of gewu and zhizhi without bias, the present paper examines the ¡®two polarities¡¯—broad learning (boxue ÚÏùÊ) and Chan Buddhism-oriented learning—against which he sought to contrast his own views. On the one hand, he criticized the one-sidedness of each of them, and on the other, he synthesized these two polarities into a single system so as to reestablish the authority and validity of the classics and discussions between teachers and colleagues as the source of meaningful knowledge. By doing so, he strove to reverse the tendency of focusing on the inner dimension in the Cheng learning tradition, a tendency which James Liu has called ¡°turning inward.¡± In response to this tendency, Zhu Xi presented a new vision of the integral unity between the inner realms of human nature and the mind and the outer realm of the externals. In this vein, the present paper sheds fresh light on the meaning of ¡°huoran guangtong¡± üÃæÔÎ»÷× as ¡°the integral unity,¡± that which bridges the division between the inner and the outer realms, instead of a mystic transcendence, a ¡°sudden¡± ¡°lofty¡± elevation, or the totality of the whole.