As a representative work of the school of Jinggong, Chen Xiangdao's Lunyu quanjie broadly reflects the school’s understanding of the Lunyu. On one hand, Chen widely adopted Confucianism and was especially reliant on the teachings of lixue 禮學 (learning of rites) to support his claims. Chen’s frequent use of passages from both the Laozi and the Zhuangzi to explain the Lunyu provides an outstanding example of the annotation methods of what was at the time a new school led by Wang Anshi. Chen also utilized Taoist ideas which fit into Confucian teachings to enrich the Confucian doctrine of righteousness and attempted to put Confucianism over Buddhism and Taoism. This attempt reflects the trend of the Northern Song Dynasty in which the three traditions of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism were deeply correlated to one another. On the other hand, however, Chen’s interpretation of the classical Confucian texts focused primarily on expounding their moral implications, which reflects the shift of interpretative focus from that of the Han learning to that of the Song learning in interpreting the Lunyu.