|Keyword : the Four Beginnings and Seven Feelings, the Toegye school, the Yulgok school, the mutual requirement of ri and gi, the single path of the issuance of gi with ri mounting it, the primacy of ri, the primacy of gi.
This study summarizes the theories of the Four beginnings and Seven Feelings developed by the Toegye (退溪) and Yulgok (栗谷) Schools. The Four Beginnings and Seven Feelings were interpreted differently by these two schools. Moreover, within each school, there existed different positions in terms of theoretical details. The Toegye School included some scholars who interpreted the theory of the mutual issuance of ri (理) and gi (氣) in terms of the distinction between the primacy of ri and the primacy of gi. This school also included other scholars who emphasized the clear distinction between the Four Beginnings and Seven Feelings based on their origins by accepting the independent issuance of ri. On the other hand, the scholars from the Yulgok School attempted to explain the difference between the theories of Yulgok and Toegye in terms of the difference between the primacy of ri and the primacy of gi. In addition, this school also included other scholars who criticized Toegye’s theory of the mutual issuance of ri and gi.